The Making of Structural Steels ~ Report

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Structural steel is steel construction material, a profile, formed with a specific shape or cross section and certain standards of chemical composition and mechanical properties. Structural steel shape, size, composition, strength, storage, etc., is regulated in most industrialized countries. Steel making is a complicated processes involving many stages and yielding thousands of by-products, it can be produced either from steel scrap or iron.




Production of structural steel is an integrated process. There are three main phases of production: ironmaking, steelmaking and shaping. However, these phases contain several operations

I've written a report recently about making of structural steel, it contains:

·         Introduction    
·         Iron/steel production  
·         Chemical composition and alloys for structural steels   
·         Heat treatment influence on mechanical properties of structural steels 
·         Mechanical characteristics/properties 
·         Shaping: hot rolling and cold forming of structural shapes 
·         Grades of structural steel           
·         APPENDIX A          



I've uploaded the report to Dropbox
You can download it from



Structural CAD drawings (dwg) - drawings of a full construction project ~ Part-2

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Every time I wanted to draw in AutoCAD I needed a template to start with. So, my dear followers you can start with your exact template you need, save your time and effort.
Here are drawings of a full construction project (pharmaceutical building, Birzeit University).


I've uploaded the structural drawings in this part.                                                     

Contents:

1- Table of contents 
2- Structural Notes
3- Foundation axis
4- Foundation layout
5- Foundation details
6- Foundation detail 1
7- Foundation detail 2
8- Column tables
9- Several details
10- Slab Reinforcement
11- Beams details 1
12- Beams details 2
13- Beams details 3
14- Beams details 4
15- Beams details 5
16- Stair Reinforcement

AutoCAD view for the drawings - structural drawingsAutoCAD view for the drawings - structural drawings

AutoCAD view for the drawings - structural drawingsAutoCAD view for the drawings - structural drawings


DOWNLOAD THE DRAWINGS
(from dropbox)

HERE


Architectiural CAD drawings (dwg) - drawings of a full construction project ~ Part-1

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Every time I wanted to draw in AutoCAD I needed a template to start with. So, my dear followers you can start with your exact template you need, save your time and effort.
Here are drawings of a full construction project (pharmaceutical building, Birzeit University).
I'll download the structural drawings in Part-2.  

Contents:

1- Table of contents 
2- Site plan
3- Areas
4- Ground floor plan
5- Ground floor plan
6- Staircase floor plan
7- Elevations 1
8- Elevations 2
9- Sections
10- Ground floor furniture plan
11- Ground floor false ceiling plan
12- Roof plan
13- drainage plan
14- Wall details 1
15- Wall details 2
16- Staircase details 1
17- Staircase details 2
18- Doors & Windows details
19- W.C Details 1
20- W.C Details 2
21- Entrance & Facade details
22- Elevator Details 
23- False ceiling details 
24- Door details 1 
25- Door details 2 
26- Metal door details 
27- Window A1. Details 1
28- Window A1. Details 2

dwg drawings
AutoCAD view for the drawings
AutoCAD view for the drawings
AutoCAD view for the drawings

DOWNLOAD THE DRAWINGS
(from dropbox)

HERE


Sichuan Earthquake - Field report

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China is located in a region of high seismicity. Many large and destructive events have occurred in China and caused a large number of fatalities and significant damage. On 12 May 2008, the Sichuan Earthquake struck, this event was one of the worst natural disaster in recorded history, and is referred to as the “Great Earthquake” in China. With an estimated magnitude of 8, it caused a huge damage.

Sichuan Earthquake china



Many victims were school children, as more than 14,000 classrooms were damaged, half of them collapsed entirely. Almost 400,000 people had to be treated for their injuries.

I've written a report recently during my Earthquake Engineering course this semester, you can download the report which is really good for those who interested in earthquake engineering.


Sichuan Earthquake china shear crack
shear crack in a school building


Contents

CHAPTER I                                           

·         Introduction  
·         Overview   
·         The Earthquake   
                                                                               
CHAPTER II

·         Damage in structures   
·         Conclusions and recommendations  
·         APPENDIX A - Retrofitting options  

·         References   



You can download the report from the link below ( Uploaded from dropbox )
Here




Who am I ?!

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Who Am I ?


Welcome to Civil Engineering Blog! My name is Tha'er Zaghal, and I’m the founder of this blog, a place to post my ideas and the whole knowledge that I've learned! I started this website after being told by friends and family that I keep talking about civil engineering more than anything else.

Well, I live in Jerusalem, Palestine and I'm a Civil Engineering student, it's my fourth year which means that one more year to let the dream come true ;)


With my blog I hope to show you some creative ideas that could change something, in other words, I can say that I just think loudly and post what I think insted of annoying my family with my thoughts haha. 
Moreover, I've decided to put a lot of resources that could help any student in his studying, so I've posted my reports that I've worked hard on them in the recent four years.
I also share ideas and techniques from my personal experience of getting in shape.
Civil Engineering Blog is created to inspire you, all while enjoying the journey! 

With Love
Tha'er Zaghal 



Inclined columns reinforcement

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Inclined steel columns are much easier to be constructed comparison to concrete columns, in the picture below you can see the reinforcement of inclined concrete columns.
As you see, the joints have a lot of stirrups because it's the critical section.



inclined columns
inclined column reinforcement

However, analysis of inclined columns would use as a beam for this situation. Basically columns are vertical , beams can slope and the analysis of a sloped column would want to be done like a beam. That's because columns can carry vertical loads ( compression ) more than flexural forces.




Angled highway bridge

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The A9 Schiphol bridge is awesome when it opens! The bridge decks opens in an angle.




The Haramain High Speed Rail project

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The Haramain High Speed Rail project also known as the "Western Railway" or "Mecca-Medina high speed railway", is a 453.0 kilometres (281.5 mi) (449.2 kilometres of main line, plus a branch connection to KAIA airport, high-speed inter-city rail transport system under construction in Saudi Arabia. It will link the Muslim holy cities of Medina and Mecca via King Abdullah Economic City, Rabigh, Jeddah, and King Abdulaziz International Airport. It will connect with the national network at Jeddah. The project is over two years late and was originally planned to open in 2012. As of August 2014, the Medina to Rabigh section is scheduled for services by the end of this year (2015), suggesting a phased opening.


The Haramain High Speed Rail project


The rail line is planned to provide a safe and comfortable transport in 300 kilometres per hour (190 mph) electric trains. Construction started in March 2009. The railway is expected to carry three million passengers a year, including many Hajj and Umrah pilgrims, helping to relieve traffic congestion on the roads.

The Haramain High Speed Rail project

The Haramain High Speed Rail project




Aldeadávila Dam

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Aldeadávila Dam is a concrete arch-gravity dam on the Douro River (also known as the Duero River) on the border between Spain and Portugal. The Douro River forms the international boundary between Portugal and Spain. The nearest Spanish town is Aldeadávila de la Ribera in the Province of Salamanca, about 11.3 kilometres (7.0 mi) to the east. The nearest Portuguese town is Fornos in Bragança District, about 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) to the southwest. The Portuguese side of the river around the dam site lies within the International Douro Natural Park. 


Aldeadávila Dam

Aldeadávila Dam

Aldeadávila Dam

Aldeadávila Dam



Raft Foundation ( Mat Foundation )

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Don't confuse about raft and mat foundation. Raft foundation is mat foundation. Now what is raft foundation?

Raft Foundation ( Mat Foundation )


Raft foundation is a thick concrete slab reinforced with steel which covers the entire contact area of the structure like a thick floor. Sometimes area covered by raft may be greater than the contact area depending on the bearing capacity of the soil underneath. The reinforcing bars runs normal to each other in both top and bottom layers of steel reinforcement. Sometimes inverted main beams and secondary beams are used to carry column loads that require thicker foundation slab considering economy of the structure. Both beams cast monolithically with raft slab.

Raft Foundation ( Mat Foundation )


Now I shall discuss where raft foundations are required. Raft foundation is required where soils have low bearing capacity and have to support heavy structural loads. Normally structures on marshy land, soft clay and land that are made up of sanitary land fill or other materials (like debris, unconsolidated soil and solid waste etc. where differential settlement is suspected)-require raft foundation. Raft foundations are preferred in the soil that are suspected to subsidence. Subsidence may occur from different sources like change in ground water level due to climatic change specially in case expansive soil or foundation in mining area.

Raft Foundation ( Mat Foundation )


In one words, where deep foundation like pile foundation are not economical and feasible and isolated column footing is impracticable due to large footing size or over-lapping of neighbor footing , raft foundation is the economical solution.

Raft Foundation ( Mat Foundation )

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